The rise of the King Movement. The Hague: Dr W. Junk. Anderson (1991, p. 790) was also aware of the implications of a rapid widespread appearance of sites, and noted that planned mass migration—not unlike the Norse settlement of Greenland—could not be ruled out as an explanation. (2011). After the British assumed formal control of New Zealand in 1840, European settlement and government began to alarm the Maori, especially in North Island. Boyd, M. (1989). Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Christchurch: Canterbury College. Colonisation had to be self-supporting and this was achieved through three processes. The third cites an aDNA study of members of an early generation of migrants that provides information about the nature of the biological pool from which the colonists derived. The lore of the Whare-wānanga: Or, teachings of the Maori College on religion, cosmogony, and history. There are five ovens in total within the cluster, suggesting that ritual feasting was a regular occurrence in this precinct of the site. The Polynesian dog and rat came with the early arrivals, but the domestic pigs and chickens of the islands did not, for reasons not fully understood. The latter displayed a dietary pattern that suggested the exploitation of a wide range of protein sources—such as might be expected in the earliest stages of settlement in a new ecology—and which is well reflected in the midden data from Wairau Bar (Kinaston et al. Wellington: Reed. 2014), such levels of diversity in a founding population indicate that this was not a small, closely related matrilineal or matrilocal colonising group sampled from a single village or even a single island; if the individuals buried at Wairau Bar were not the very first generation of colonists, then the likely founding female population could have been even larger—all data that support a mass migration scenario. Even know it was already populated by the Maori people he took it anyway. Sinoto, Y. H., & Kellum, M. (1965). 25, 13–58. The lost world of the Moa. 27, R110–R113. There is already some evidence, however, that the colonists were recruited from a wide area, a networked community, and were motivated by factors beyond immediate kin needs and aspirations. The Sociological Review, Many New Zealand place names, preserved by later generations of Māori people, recall his journey. New Zealand archaeology and its Polynesian connections. 2014, Perry et al. 2013, p. 8). Initial human dispersal in Remote Oceania: Pattern and explanation. Maori arrival Ancient DNA preserved in the teeth of the first known New Zealanders, who died more than 700 years ago, is helping shed new light on the settlement of Polynesia, researchers report. Hawaiki: The original home of the Maori; with a sketch of Polynesian history. Turner, M. T. (2000). Nevertheless, knowledge of the existence of a bountiful place, especially in the absence of significant demographic and environmental pressures, is not in itself enough to motivate a mass migration, especially one with social and economic costs as high as those underpinning the settlement of New Zealand. Grey, G. (1855). Figure 2 shows the location of sites assigned to the colonisation phase (as defined above) and includes all those sites that meet Anderson’s (1989b, p. 110) criteria as ‘moa hunting’ sites. 1, pp. For example, the early traditionalist scholar S. Percy Smith (Smith 1904; Smith et al. Journal of the Polynesian Society, Anderson, A. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. Glenda Lewis reports in the second and final article on human migration … We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments and criticisms offered by Karen Greig, Atholl Anderson and anonymous referees. Norwegian Archaeological Review, The clearest evidence for an early phase of rapid and effective exploration comes from the record of lithic resource exploitation. Unfortunately, this period represents a particularly wiggly portion of the radiocarbon calibration curve, creating regions of ambiguity (Hogg et al. Instead, it records a mass movement of people. This is a conservative growth rate for a colonising population below environmental carrying capacity (Steele et al. Barlow, C. (1994). Maderspacher, F. (2017). The website Te Ara from the New Zealand Govt gives a great amount of detail as well as images, maps and multimedia. ), Anthropology in the South Seas (pp. We briefly review the Wairau Bar site before turning to the evidence for mass migration. 87–88). The Moa Hunter period of Maori culture. The ambitious settlement plans of the New Zealand Company upped the ante. But even in the north, birds, fish and shellfish were important in the Māori diet. Waiura: Alister Taylor. The largest of the smaller islands is located off the very southern boundary of the country (Te Ara-the Encyclopedia of New Zealand). Current Anthropology, Wellington: Victoria University Press. (1989b). In M. H. Crawford & B. C. Campbell (Eds. (1992). For the purposes of this paper, however, we define a colonisation phase as a period approximately congruent with the 14th century AD, during which migrants from tropical East Polynesia and two or three generations of their descendants established a stable and self-reliant colony in New Zealand. 1200 BC. Māori passed on rich and detailed history and legends orally. Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia: An essay in historical anthropology. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society, 3 & 4. But New Zealand’s isolated islands, in the cold south-western waters of this ocean, were the last to be settled. In R. C. Green & M. Kelly (Eds. Discussions of the causes of migration have traditionally revolved around the concepts of push and pull: ‘in general, migration is most likely to occur when there are negative (push) stresses in the home region and positive (pull) attractions in the destination region, and the transportation costs between the two are acceptable’ (Lee 1966, p. 899). The company’s plans to buy large quantities of (cheap) land for settlement led to concerns that Māori would be defrauded. Obsidian, colonizing and exchange. Wellington: Reed. This ‘discovery’ stage involves the initial location and perhaps exploration of a new land followed by return voyaging. History of excavations at Wairau Bar. In: Lowe, D.J. As has been mentioned here already, they simply hadn’t been settled in New Zealand for very long when the first Europeans arrived and started colonizing the region. Kin-structured migration and colonization. 2. (1989a). Factors Influencing 14C Ages of the Pacific Rat Rattus Exulans - Volume 40 Issue 2 - Nancy Ragano Beavan, Rodger J. Sparks (2013) determined that the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicated that the Group 1 individuals had had (at some point within the decade or so preceding death) diets with a much lower diversity of protein sources that those of the other individuals on site. The most obvious comparisons with Wairau Bar, in terms of size, settlement pattern, function, diversity and richness of artefact and faunal collections, are the colonisation phase (‘Archaic’) sites of tropical East Polynesia, including Hane, Ha’atuatua and Hanamiai (Marquesas); Urei’a and Anai’o (Cook Islands); and Vaito’otia/Fa’ahia and Maupiti (Society Islands) (Allen and Steadman 1990; Conte and Molle 2014; Emory and Sinoto 1964; Rolett 1998; Sinoto 1979; Sinoto and Kellum 1965; Suggs 1961; Walter 1998). 81, 343–356. Location of Hawaiiki Zone—the zone where the first Polynesian settlers of New Zealand originated. The full size of the site at the time of occupation is not known, but 11 ha of intact deposit has been identified in geophysical survey, and ground tested (Brooks et al. New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia … The New Zealand Company. Maternal history of Oceania from complete mtDNA genomes: Contrasting ancient diversity with recent homogenization due to the Austronesian expansion. The people of Wairau Bar: A re-examination. 249–270). Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. The Pacific was the first ocean to be explored. New Zealand (Golson, 1959). Subsequently Jacomb et al. (2010). Emory, K. P., & Sinoto, Y. H. (1964). All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. The genealogical method of anthropological inquiry. There were two periods of settlement: 1. Specht, J. ), Tangata Whenua: An illustrated history (pp. ), The origins of the first New Zealanders (pp. It is generally accepted (e.g., Pool 1991) that Captain Cook’s estimate of the Maori population in 1769 of around 100,000 individuals was reasonably accurate. Auckland: Longman Paul. (1999) and Jacomb et al. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. Kinaston, R. L., Walter, R., Jacomb, C., Brooks, E., Tayles, N., Halcrow, S. E., et al. Worthy, T. H., & Holdaway, R. (2002). Culture change in prehistoric New Zealand. Anderson, A. (2006). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago. 2014). 16, 177–196. 111, 121, 142). 367–380). 2011, figure 31). It has two parts. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.9047. 30, Issue. It also contained 1135 fragments of moa eggshell, representing at least 31 individual eggs from three species (Emeus curtus, Emeus crassus, and Dinornis robustus) (Oskam et al. The Cook Islands—New Zealand connection. 104, 110–132. Walls, J. Y. Polynesian mythology and ancient traditional history of the New Zealand race, as furnished by their priests and chiefs. The first of these is archaeological and draws evidence from the distribution and patterning of the earliest known sites on the landscape. The greatest achievements of Māori material culture were carving wood for important buildings and canoes, and fashioning stone and bone into tools and ornaments. 92, 895–914. When groups colonise previously unoccupied territories, ‘units of migration must be large enough to create a viable community, or individuals/families must migrate between established communities’ (Cameron 2000, p. 555). Current approaches in East Polynesian colonisation research. Stable isotope analysis: A tool for studying past diet, demography, and life history. Radiocarbon calibration curve variations and their implications for the interpretation of New Zealand prehistory. It involved the rapid exploration of New Zealand’s coastlines and rivers, the establishment of a widely dispersed pattern of settlements, and ongoing connectivity across the wider colony. 2014, p. 29). For many decades archaeologists interested in colonisation and culture change in Maori society used oral histories and voyaging traditions as aids to interpreting archaeological site data. There is no significant stratigraphic complexity and the site is best interpreted as a large village that was occupied for decades but not centuries. A review of the prehistoric sequence in the Auckland province. Higham, T., Hedges, R., Anderson, A., Bronk Ramsey, C., & Fankhauser, B. 251–264). World Archaeology, Canterbury Museum Records. Most of the individuals outside of Group 1 had strontium isotope signatures that were close to those determined for the local environment, based on determinations of the archaeological dog population from the site. The colonial settlement of New Zealand took place during the mass migration from Europe that began in the nineteenth century. Colonisation, mobility and exchange in New Zealand prehistory. Upward revisions of New Zealand’s chronology show that the appearance of humans on the landscape occurred extremely rapidly, and that within decades set-tlements had been established across the full range of climatic zones. Founded as a commercial operation designed for investors, it was also based on the widespread view that population growth – regarded as desirable – was related to food production, and that the solution to mass starvation was to export surplus population. 40, 601–613. Today, most archaeologists accept the reality of a shorter chronology, but the discipline as a whole has not fully explored the implications of this in relation to colonisation and culture-change processes. Conte, E., & Molle, G. (2014). 2013, p. 7). (1959). Some were short-lived (sojourner) ventures abandoned within decades. We are aware that in invoking migration (and especially ‘mass migration’) we are reintroducing an explanatory framework that many archaeologists consider theoretically questionable. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Auckland. Many New Zealand species may have been heading for slow extinction after Polynesian settlement. Annals of Human Genetics, 41, 329–339. In fact, no such lag is apparent in the archaeological record. In light of this, Walter (1994) has suggested that rather than seeing the imprecision in Maori traditions as obscuring the question of origins, it accurately reflects the regional origins of the voyaging canoes. They proposed that the Group 1 result is a reflection of an earlier dietary phase prior to arriving in New Zealand. As in tropical East Polynesia, this involved the establishment of a communication network linking communities on an expanding colonial frontier. Mayor Island obsidian has been identified in the earliest deposits of colonisation-phase sites up to 2000 km from source; from the northern tip of the North Island to Foveaux Strait and Stewart Island in the extreme south of New Zealand (Seelenfreund-Hirsch 1985; Walter et al. 2010), and Wairau Bar may well have been a centre for their manufacture and export. Iwi: The dynamics of Maori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. ), The prehistory of Polynesia (pp. Polynesian Migration. In Hawaiiki these craft were the medium by which communication and exchange networks linked communities on distant islands and archipelagos (Weisler et al. Wairau Bar not only mirrors those sites in setting and site content, it contains evidence of direct contact with the islands of tropical Polynesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Before much progress can be made in establishing the effects of Polynesian settlement, a 'baseline' must be set for 'New Zealand without humans' even though it is difficult to be sure exactly what the date should be. The mechanics of overkill in the extinction of New Zealand Moa. So far, the mtDNA data from the Group 1 individuals at Wairau Bar cited above suggests that the colonisation of New Zealand was not strongly kin structured. 207–226). The results were interpreted as indicating commencement of occupation in the late 13th century AD. As our work continues, we are finding additional mtDNA haplotypes, with at least four different maternal lineages now identified in Burial group 1. However, the shorter chronology that now prevails has brought the topic of migration to the fore again, and there are a number of reasons why mass migration provides an attractive explanation for the peopling of New Zealand. From sau ‘ariki to Hawaiki. ), Studies in Oceanic culture history (Vol. These tools are also found in 14th century sites across much of the county (Prickett 1989; Turner 2000; Walls 1974; Walter et al. 6, 361–375. This 14th century village site provides strong support for the mass migration hypothesis, and documents the range of strategies that were adopted by the first colonists to establish a stable colony. It also opens the door to a new phase of engagement between archaeological method and indigenous Maori and Polynesian oral history and tradition. Concepts of central place research in archaeology. Radiocarbon, 49, 121–136. New Zealand has a shorter human history than any other country. Activity: Show the kids the map from the textbook/pdf that I have attached below. Acus crenulatus is a tropical species not found in New Zealand waters and the tool must have been brought out with the migrants from Hawaiiki. Simmons, D. R., & Biggs, B. 2010, p. 504). Immigration to New Zealand. Hogg, A. G., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P. G., Niu, M., Buck, C. E., Guilderson, T. P., et al. doi:10.1086/317383. The navigator credited in some tradition… The Māori are most likely descended from people who emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia and then travelled east through to the Society Islands. More recently he has suggested a phase of migration—although not a planned mass migration—over a period of a century commencing in the late 1200s (Anderson 2014, p. 67). Immigration acts have long been analysed as instrumental to the working of the modern nation-state. Anderson, A. All of these historical events were charted against whakapapa—the lines of genealogical decent that lie at the heart of Maori social identity and history, and which establish relationships between individuals and different social groups (Barlow 1994; Metge 1976). We show that the rapid appearance of a strong archaeological signature in the early 14th century AD is the result of a mass migration event, not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. In light of recent archaeological investigations none of these propositions seems credible. Brewis, A. 105, 126–135. We first look at the evidence for mass migration and then we look at colonisation behaviours through the lens of the 14th century archaeological record. The second is demographic and relies on genetic data to provide an estimate of the size of the founding cohort. Warfare did not inhibit regular trade in desirable stones and foods, and was itself a means by which resources were appropriated. Green, R. C. (1963). The essential strategy of the colonists seems to have been to reproduce the social and economic structures of Hawaiiki in the new land. (2008). 30, 286–305. The chronology of colonization in New Zealand. In 2010 a chisel made of the shell of the marine shellfish species Acus crenulatus was identified in an assemblage of artefacts excavated in February 1947 (Davidson et al. Migration often involves some gender selection, and ethnographic and historical evidence shows that males are generally more mobile than women (Burmeister 2000, p. 543), so 500 is likely a conservative estimate of founding group size. Green, R. C., & Kirch, P. V. (1997). Schwarcz, H. P., & Schoeninger, M. J. Auckland: Oxford University Press. modelled Maori population demographics with a view to understanding the timing of colonisation. The founder group included individuals who were not closely related maternally, indicating that kinship was not necessarily the primary or only criterion for inclusion in the colony. An analysis of the stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen and strontium in tooth enamel in the Group 1 individuals indicated that some may have spent some of their early years in Hawaiiki before travelling to New Zealand. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago. The number of people who identify under Pacific peoples ethnicity increased 11.3 percent from the 2006 Census. A., Sutton, D. G., & Molloy, M. A. Journal of World Prehistory, 30:4, pp. The site was discovered by fossickers in the 1920s and has been the subject of excavations by the Canterbury Museum (1942–1964) and, more recently, by the authors (Brooks et al. Without more precise strontium baseline maps from New Zealand and the Pacific it is not possible to determine where the Group 1 individuals spent time prior to their arrival at Wairau Bar, but the overall evidence, including the archaeology, makes the assumption of a youth spent in Hawaiiki reasonable. Marae reflections: On the evolution of stratified chiefdoms in the Leeward Society Islands. Many Pacific Islanders came to New Zealand with the aspiration to work and dreams of a better life for themselves and their children. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. Kahn, J. G., & Kirch, P. V. (2014). So, Polynesian settlement of New Zealand around 1300 appears to be the "conventional wisdom." Preliminary report on excavations in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Moa are the only descendant species with no vestigial wings and include nine known species, the largest of which weighed up to 230 kg and stood nearly four metres in height with neck upstretched. It is believed that Polynesian migration was planned and deliberate, with many waka hourua making return journeys to Hawaiki. When the community appealed to the government it emphasized that ‘mass migration was not sought and that the life history and capabilities of every It was not until 1642 that Europeans became awarethe country existed. Like those sites, Wairau Bar was a permanent village, located to provide safe access for deep-water sailing craft by residents who were participating in long-distance voyaging and exchange networks. 3. the North or Maori face overlooks the harbour and the cliff-like walls symbolise the sea, hills and sky. The oral traditions of the canoe voyages all document precisely that kind of charismatic leadership driving decision-making in the homelands (Reilly and Walter n.d.). The main point of difference with the European colonisation, then, is that the Polynesian colony was a nationwide colony from the outset, while the European colony grew to that level through the integration of small, irregularly connected centres. (1998). Settlement patterns and complex society in the Windward Society islands. (1998). Maori Artifacts Point to Early Polynesian Settlement in New Zealand By Tom Metcalfe 09 August 2017 The dig was a joint project between archaeologists from New Zealand … In S. Bedford, C. Sand, & D. Burley (Eds. Whether we can read the canoe traditions as direct or partial accounts of historical events, there is a consistent theme running through all Maori text that places prime causes for epochal events in the hands of individuals of extraordinary charisma, mana (authority) and ability to draw on deep-seated Polynesian traditions and structures to recruit others into their vision. Te Iwi Maori: A New Zealand population past, present and projected. (1995). The Pacific population in New Zealand as recorded in the 2013 census was 95,941, this figure is 7.4 percent of New Zealand’s population. Paris: Publication de la Sorbonne. We contend that this was a planned migration, based on prior knowledge of the location of New Zealand, and that it involved a number of interacting communities within a zone of regular interaction in central East Polynesia. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Ongoing research into the early adze industry by the authors suggests that one of the roles of Wairau Bar may have been as a manufacturing and distribution centre for high quality adzes (Shipton et al. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. Walter, R. (1998). 38, 2589–2595. Wilmshurst, J. M., & Higham, T. F. G. (2004). Using computer simulations of ‘realistic’ growth rate models and the analysis of mtDNA from Maori and Polynesian subjects, Whyte et al. The Polynesian colonisation phase was characterised by high levels of mobility and low levels of population isolation. The function, design and distribution of New Zealand adzes. American Anthropologist, In G. Kuschel (Ed. Canberra: Australian National University. ... not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. Rivers, W. H. R. (1910). Archaeology and migration: Approaches to an archaeological proof of migration. (2016). Lapita exchange systems and their Polynesian transformations: Seeking explanatory models. One of the most important targets of early Polynesian hunting activities was moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). It is also located within a few days’ canoe travel of the important stone sources of Nelson and D’Urville Island, and its location on Cook Strait maximises the community’s access to all the coastlines of the country. doi:10.1525/aa.1990.92.4.02a00030. 71–84). Pool, D. I. 43–67). In R. Green & M. Kelly (Eds. Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Mäori culture. . Includes most of the ‘moa hunting’ sites identified by Anderson (1989a, b, pp. An important consideration for migrants is the availability of support services (Boyd 1989), and migrant communities frequently value and endeavour to maintain links to the homeland for this purpose. 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